Liquid Penetrant Testing

PT – Liquid Penetrant Testing is an NDT method used to locate surface-breaking defects and/or discontinuities. A low-viscosity fluid known as a penetrant is applied to the part and allowed to dwell on the part for a specified time. The excess penetrant is carefully removed and a developer is applied which draws the penetrant out of defects and/or discontinuities through capillary action and provides a contrasting background to improve the visibility of the indications. iV-ndt operates according all international codes and standards, the procedures are all reviewed and approved by our level 3 technician. (ISO 3452-1 acc EN ISO 23277, ASME BPV code Section V, Subsection A, Article 6. Acceptance criterioa ASME BPV code Section VIII, Div. 1, Appendix 8,  AWS D1.1/D1.1M/ ASTM E-165. Materials inspected include non-ferrous and ferrous materials, although ferrous materials are typically inspected with Magnetic Particle testing for its subsurface detection capabilities. This method is used to detect casting, forging and welding surface defects and/or discontinuities such as cracks, surface porosity, leaks, fatigue cracks on in-service components, and inherent manufacturing flaws. Surface preparation is critical and it is therefore important to ensure surfaces are free of oil, grease, scale, paint, rust or other residues that may affect the quality of inspection. Penetrants are either color contrast method (visible)or fluorescent only visible in black light conditions, and are removed by either water washable, post-emulsifiable, or solvent removable methods. The methods used are typically determined based on the application, or as specified by code and/or manufacturing specifications. The water washable visible method is commonly used; however, it is not as sensitive as the fluorescent method. Fluorescent penetrants are highly sensitive as they have the ability to detect very small defects and/or discontinuities. Fluorescent penetrants are viewed under a near ultraviolet light, referred to as a black light. Visible penetrants have one sensitivity level, and defects and/or discontinuities appear as red penetrant indications against the white developer background.Temperature limitations are generally in the range of 4°C to 55°C. Special penetrants are available and are used for lower or higher temperature applications. Penetrants are typically applied by brushing, spraying or immersing.

Special inspection applications are customized according to client requirements.

Magnetic Testing / Magnetic Particle Inspection

MT- Magnetic Particle Testing is a method used for the detection of surface and subsurface defects and/ or discontinuities in ferromagnetic materials. A magnetic field is applied into the part, and iron particles are applied while the part is being magnetized. Defects and/or discontinuities are detected when the particles collect and form an indication within the magnetic field which provides a representation of the size and location of the indication.

iV-ndt operates according all international codes and standards, the procedures are all reviewed and approved by our level 3 technician. (EN-ISO 17638 acc EN-ISO 23278, ASME BPV code Section V, Subsection A, Article 7/ASME BPV code Section VIII, Div.1, Appendix 6/B31,3, AWS D1.1 / D1.1M, ASTM E-709 / ASTM A903/A 903M etc). Procedures can also be made to customer-specific requirements.

Magnetic Particle is commonly performed on welds, fittings, piping, castings, forgings, pressure vessels, machined parts, shafts, valves and structural steel. The inspection surface must be clean and free from material such as oil, grease, thick paint, scale, etc. Inspection may be performed on very thin well-adhered paint providing the inspection sensitivity is not compromised. The testing is performed using either alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC). Alternating current is limited to identifying surface indications, whereas direct current will detect slight subsurface indications which are subject to the type of material and size of defects and/or discontinuities. The direct current method is not as effective as the alternating current method for detection of surface defects and/or discontinuities. A handheld electromagnetic yoke in either alternating or direct current is typically used for field applications. A stationary magnet machine is used for large series of products.

Magnetic particles are applied as dry powder iron filings, or using wet mediums such as water, solvent or light oil. Dry powders are available in various colours which provide contrast with the colour of the material being tested. Wet particles are available in either visible black or fluorescent. For wet black applications, white contrast paint is applied to the component and allowed to dry prior to application of the wet visible particles, whereas fluorescent particles are applied and viewed under ultraviolet black light conditions.

Depending on the type of material and component inspected, demagnetization may be required to prevent equipment malfunction due to residual magnetism.

Special inspection applications are customized according to client requirements.

Ultrasonic Testing

UT- Ultrasonic testing is an NDT method using high frequency sound energy above the human hearing level of 20 kHz and is produced by a piezoelectric crystal (transducer) which converts electrical energy into mechanical vibrations, and back to electrical energy for interpretation of the electronic signal. Ultrasonic testing is capable of detecting surface and subsurface defects and/or discontinuities, and is commonly used for measuring material thickness, and for detecting flaws in newly manufactured or in-service components. iV-ndt operates according all international codes and standards, the procedures are all reviewed and approved by our level 3 technician. ( EN ISO 17640 acc EN ISO 11666/EN ISO 23279/EN 10160,EN-ISO 10893 : 2011, EN 10228-3

EN 10228 NORSOK M-10,  ASME BPV code sectionV, subsetion A, article 4 / ASME VIII Div.1, appendix 12 : /AWS D 1.1/D1.1M: etc)Ultrasonic inspection is commonly performed on welds, castings, forgings, pipe, fittings, valves, mechanical shafts, machined parts, pressure vessel category A, B, and D welds, wood, non-metallic materials, concrete, and for the detection of steel plate laminations.Inspection surfaces must be clean to allow ultrasound transmission between the couplant and the part under examination, and accessibility and immediate obstructions should be minimized particularly when performing shear-wave flaw detection. Thin paint and other coatings are acceptable providing they are not dis-bonded and/or flaking from the area of interest. High temperatures will affect the propagation and attenuation of ultrasound, and therefore, special high temperature transducers and couplants are available for specific applications.

Visual Testing

Visual Testing our inspection personnel are all certified to perform visual inspections conform ISO 17637, EN ISO 5817, AWS D1.1M, ASME V -article 9 / ASME B31.1 These services include not only visual weld inspections we can extend our service for planning, dimensional inspection, and QA/QC document control for newly fabricated and in-service equipment/products.Visual techniques are often used to compliment other NDT methods. The inspection tools include gauges, micrometers, calipers, magnifying devices, remote video equipment, and surface conditioning equipment to perform inspections

Hardness Testing

HT – Hardness Testing is an NDT method used to measure hardness of materials.The most common methods include:The Brinell hardness test is achieved by applying a load between a known bar hardness material and a ball located within the anvil to the surface of the tested material. The diameter of the resulting permanent impressions in the tested material and the known hardness bar are measured and the Brinell Hardness Number (BHN) is calculated.The Microdur hardness test is an electronic micro-hardness instrument which measures the material hardness based on the analysis of resonance frequency known as Ultrasonic Contact Impedance which measures the hardness value based on changes to the relative size of the micro indentation area.The Equotip hardness test measures the material hardness based on an electronic analysis of impact and rebound velocities.The Rockwell hardness test is based on the indentation hardness of a material. The Rockwell test determines the hardness by measuring the depth of penetration of an indenter under a measured load. This method, unless converted from a portable electronic instrument, is performed on stationary equipment.The Vickers hardness test is determined by measuring the indentation in the test material from an application of a given force between 1 gram as a micro-hardness to 50 Kg as a macro-hardness. Hardness testing is performed on ferrous and non-ferrous materials, and on various non-metallic materials. Common Hardness testing applications include welds, weld overlays, weld heat affected zone (HAZ), castings, forgings, fittings, piping, stress relieved material, machined parts, pressure vessels, structural steel, and materials and components requiring NACE MR0175 certification. TriQuest NDT ‘portable equipment provides rapid hardness testing results, and can be quickly calibrated from known hardness calibration test pieces when performing tests on different types of materials.Testing limitations per method include:The Brinell hardness tests is limited to thicker materials, and is not recommended for weld heat affected zones, or on surfaces where indentations may affect machined surfaces.

Positive Matrial Identification

PMI – Positive Matrial Identification also referred as Material Verification, is an NDT method used to identify metal alloy element compositions with a portable x-ray fluorescence alloy analyzer. iV-ndt performs there measurements with the Oxford X-MET 7000 eXpress.XRF/PMI is performed on ferrous and non-ferrous metallic materials including welds, weld overlays, castings, forgings, valves and components, pipe, fittings, machined parts, pressure vessels, structural steel, and on components requiring certification.Surface preparation and cleanliness are essential when performing PMI, as the depth of penetration for element analysis is minimal. Analyzers have a margin of error for element composition in low percentages that may vary depending on the activity of the equipment’s radioactive source. PMI analyzers are limited to identifying only those alloys that are listed in the manufacturer’s analyzer library, and should not be performed on material in excess of 400°C unless specialized equipment and techniques are used. X-ray fluorescence analyzers are unable to detect carbon, sulphur and phosphorus.

Ultrasonic Bolt Testing

UTB – Ultrasonic Bolt Testing iV-bolting offers the services of torque and tensioning combined with ultrasonic bolt tensioning measurements.Ultrasonic testing is an NDT method using high frequency sound energy above the human hearing level of 20 kHz,and is produced by a piezoelectric crystal (transducer) which converts electrical energy into mechanical vibrations, and back to electrical energy for interpretation of the electronic signal. Ultrasonic testing is capable of detecting surface and subsurface defects and/or discontinuities, and is commonly used for measuring material thickness, and for detecting flaws in newly manufactured or in-service components.iV-bolting uses the MAX II Ultrasonic Bolt Tension Monitor that defines the measurement of the actual elongation produced by tightening a threaded fastener.We can measure Elongation, Load, Stress, %Strain and Time (nanoseconds). very accurately in fasteners of virtually any material from 12,5 mm to 30.000 mm in length.

Roughness Testing

RT – Roughness Testing

Ra, Rq, Rz corr. to Ry (JIS), Rz (JIS), Rmax, Rp, Rp (ASME), Rpm, (ASME), Rpk, Rk, Rvk,Mr1, Mr2, A1, A2, Vo, Rt, R3z, RPc, Rmr corr. to tp (JIS, ASME), RSm, R, Ar, Rx

Oxilyser Testing

OT – Oxilyser Testing / passivity check on all stainless metals (304,316,Duplex,etc)